Jumat, 06 September 2013

STRUCTURE 19:Present Simple Tense

Present Simple Tense
The principal uses of the simple present are listed below.
To refer to an action or event that takes place habitually. In the other hand to remark habits, general realities, repeated actions or unchanging situations, emotions and wishes.[1] Such uses are often accompanied by frequency adverbs and adverbial phrases such as always, sometimes, often, usually, from time to time, rarely and never. Examples:
I always take a shower. I never go to the cinema. I walk to school. He writes for a living. She understands English.
This contrasts with the present progressive (present continuous), which is used to refer to something taking place at the present moment: I am walking now; He is writing a letter at the moment.
With stative verbs in senses that do not use progressive aspect (see Uses of English verb forms: Progressive), to refer to a present or general state, whether temporary, permanent or habitual.
You are happy. I know what to do. A child needs its mother. I love you. The label says "External use only."
It can similarly be used when quoting someone or something, even if the words were spoken in the past:
The label says "External use only." Mary says she's ready.
To refer to a single completed action, as in recounting the events of a story in the present tense (see historical present), and in such contexts as newspaper headlines, where it replaces the present perfect:
In Hamlet, Ophelia drowns in a stream. 40-year-old wins gold medal
Sometimes to refer to an arranged future event, usually with a reference to time:
We leave for Berlin tomorrow at 1 pm. Our holiday starts on the 20th May.
In providing a commentary on events as they occur:
I chop the chives and add them to the mixture. Ronaldo dribbles round the defender and shoots.
In describing events in some theoretical or planned situation that is under consideration:
According to the manager's new idea, I welcome the guests and you give the presentation.
In many dependent clauses referring to the future, particularly condition clauses, clauses expressing place and time, and many relative clauses (see Uses of English verb forms: Dependent clauses):
If he finds your sweets, he will eat them. We will report as soon as we receive any information.
simple present is also used in zero conditional sentences in both parts of the sentence.[2]
Ice melts if you heat it. Plants die if they don't get enough water.
In certain situations in a temporal adverbial clause, rather than the present progressive:
We can see the light improving as we speak.
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